SELF-CARE PRACTICES AMONG DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II PATIENTS ATTENDING THE DIABETES CLINIC OF A REFERRAL HOSPITAL IN KENYA

Wilson A Lugaya, Catherine Syombua Mwenda, Fatuma Affey

Abstract


Introduction: Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type II often develop diverse micro vascular, macro vascular, and neuropathic complications that are attributed to poor glycemic control as a result of poor self-care practice (Jones et al., 2008).The associated long life complication presents a significant economic burden and suffering to the patients and family members who struggle to comply with the W.H.O Diabetes Mellitus Type II self-care guidelines (International federation of diabetes 2012). The ultimate self-care practiced by Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients plays an integral role in achieving desirable outcomes in management of the disease. Diabetes Mellitus Type II is among the leading non-communicable diseases globally in patient’s mortality and morbidity. The burden of Diabetes Mellitus Type II worldwide was approximated to be 366 million in 2011.

Objective: To assess adequate self-care practice by Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients attending the Diabetes clinic at Kakamega County Referral Hospital.

Methods and Materials: Thestudy was conducted at Kakamega County Referral hospital. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Researcher administered questionnaires based on W.H.O Diabetes Mellitus Type II self-care guidelines were used to collect data. Questionnaires that were filled were screened and carefully scrutinized for completeness, relevance and correctness before storage. Qualitative data was analyzed manually and Quantitative data was organized, coded, and standardized then descriptive statistics were used to analyze aided by statistical package for social scientists (SPSS) version 22. Descriptive analysis was carried out to provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Tables were used to present the data. Models of statistical analysis were done to validate the findings of the study.

Results: Majority of participants were between age 50-59 years at 46.4%, gender females were at 55.95%, of which 58.3% were married with primary level of education standing at 61.9% of the total participants. The study found out the majority of participants were not in formal employment at 47.61% with those in formal employment at 3.57%, those who had a monthly income of Kshs 5,000- Kshs 10,000 at 50% and those who had the disease for a period of 5-10 years at 71% with high blood sugar dominating problems experienced by participants. Based on the tool used a big percentage of participants,62.03% on average scored 0 days in performance of self-care activities over a period of fourteen days, with an average percentage of 21.42% being able to perform the basic self-care activities over a period of 14 days. An average majority 67.91% of the participants did not receive social support from their family and friends in specific aspects of their self-care management of Diabetes Mellitus Type II.

Conclusion: The study found Diabetes Mellitus Type II self-care practice by Diabetes Mellitus Type II patients attending clinic at Kakamega County Referral Hospital to be sub optimal.


Keywords


Diabetes Mellitus Type II, Self-care and Patient.

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