Factors Influencing Continuing Professional Development for Nurses in Western Kenya

Priscah Jepkosgei MOSOL


Nursing practice takes place in a context of ongoing advances in research and technology hence, basic nursing education alone is no longer sufficient for a lifetime nursing career. However, participation in Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in many countries in Africa remains low.

Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate factors influencing nurses’ participation in CPD in Western Kenya.

Methodology: This was a descriptive cross- sectional study design of 235 stratified and randomly selected nurses and four CPD Coordinators from four County Hospitals in Western Kenya. The Key informants and the respondents for Focus Group Discussions were selected purposively. Data for this research was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, interview schedules and Focus Group Discussion guide. Data analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS V. 20). Statistical techniques including t-test, Chi-square and multiple logistic regression model were employed in the analysis. Qualitative data was analysed thematically.

Results: Findings indicated that majority of the nurses 195 (84%) participate in CPD. The five major factors that influence nurses to participate in CPD were; to obtain additional qualification, improve their Curriculum Vitae (CV), to be updated with new developments, career progression, networking with other nursing colleagues and to be prepared for mentoring new nurses and students (mean<3). All the four Coordinators considered appraisal, promotion, earn CPD points and license renewal as important factors influencing CPD participation by nurses. Education level was a significant factor associated with nurse participation in CPD, multiple binary logistic regression model indicated that those with certificate and diploma level of education were less likely to participate in CPD compared to those with degree and above levels (OR; 95% CI: 0.209; 0.062-0.705 and 0.703; 0.254-1.942) for certificate and diploma respectively.

Conclusion and Recommendations: Individual factors were the most important factors influencing nurses’ participation in CPD coupled with professional/organizational needs. The study recommends that, CPD for nurses should be jointly assessed, planned and implemented by nurses and coordinators of CPD. Individual and professional/organizational motivators of CPD for nurses should be promoted. 


Continuing Professional Development, Factors, CPD Practices

Full Text:



Banning, M. & Stafford, M. (2008). A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Community Nurses’ Continuing Professional Development. British Journal of Community Nursing, 13(4):178-182.

Barriball, K. L., While, A. E. (1996). Participation in continuing professional education in Nursing: Findings of an Interview Study. Journal of Advanced Nursing.

Gerard Brekelmans, Rob F. Poell, Kees van Wijk, (2013) "Factors influencing continuing professional development: A Delphi study among nursing experts", European Journal of Training and Development, Vol. 37 Issue: 3, pp.313-325, https://doi.org/10.1108/03090591311312769

Chong, M. C., et al. (2014). Current Continuing Professional Education Practice among

Malaysian Nurses. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Nursing Research and Practice.

Chong, M. C., Sellick, K., Francis K. & Abdullah, K. L. (2011). What influences Malaysian Nurses to Participate in Continuing Professional Education activities? Asian Nursing Research; 5 (1):38–47.

Chunping Ni, et al. (2014). Continuing Education Among Chinese Nurses: A General Hospital-based Study. Nurse Educ. Today: 34 (4): 592–597.

Eustace, L.W. (2001). Mandatory Continuing Education: Past, Present and Future Trends and Issues. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 133–137.

Friedman, A & Phillips, M. (2004).Continuing Professional Development: Developing a Vision.

Journal of Education & Work, 17, (3): 361-76.

Furze, G., Pearcey, P. (1999).Continuing education in nursing: A review of the literature’. Journal of Advanced Nursing: 29(2).

Gallagher L. (2007). Continuing Education in Nursing: A Concept Analysis. Nurse Education Today. 27(5):466 -473. [PubMed: 17109998]

Gill, A. (2007). E-Learning and Professional Development - Never too old to learn. British Journal of Nursing. 16(17):1084-1086.

Golding, L., & Gray, I. (2006). Continuing Professional Development: A Brief Guide. The

Psychologist. 19(9), 530-532.

Gould, G., Drey, N. and Berridge, E. (2006), “Nurses’ experiences of continuing professional

development”, Nurse Education Today, Vol. 27 No. 6, pp. 602-9.

Hemmington, N. (2000), “Barriers and drivers to continuing professional development:

the case of the hospitality industry”, Continuing Professional Development, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 23-32.

Hughes, E. (2005). Nurses' Perceptions of Continuing Professional Development. Nursing

Standard. 19 (43): 41-49.

International Council of Nurses (2006). The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses. International

Council of Nurses, Geneva, Switzerland.

Jordan, S. Coleman, M. Hardy, B. & Hughes, D. (1999). Assessing Educational Effectiveness: The Impact of a Specialist course on the Delivery of Care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 30(4), pp.796-807.

Knowles, N. (1980). How do you get people to be self-directed learners? Training and

Development Journal. Vol 34 (5), pp. 96-99.

Kubsch, S., Henniges, A., Lorenzoni, N., Eckardt, S & Oleniczak, S. (2003). Factors Influencing Accruement of Contact hours for nurses. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 34(5): 205-211.

Lai, K. Y. K. (2006). Hong Kong Nurses’ Participation and Perception in Continuing

Nursing Education. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Monash University. Melbourne, Australia.

Lennie, S. C. (2009). Compulsory Continuous Development: A questionnaire-based survey of the UK dietetic profession. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 22 (1):12-20.

Levett-Jones, T. L. (2005). Continuing Education for Nurses: A necessity or a Nicety? Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing. 36 (5): 229-230.

Magoha, G. A. O. (2014). Continuing Professional Development Guidelines. Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board. Nairobi.

McCarthy, A., Evans, D., 2003. A Study on the Impact of Continuing Education for Nurses and Midwives who Completed Post Registration Courses. Nursing and Midwifery Planning and Development Unit. Stationary Office, Dublin

Munro, M. (2008). Continuing Professional Development and the Charity Paradigm: Interrelated Individual, Collection and Organization Issues about Continuing Professional Development. Nursing Education Today. 28 (953-961).

Murphy, C., Cross, C. and McGuire, D. (2006), “The motivation of nurses to participate in

continuing professional education in Ireland”, Journal of European Industrial Training,

Vol. 30 No. 5, pp. 365-84.

Nalle, M. A., Wyatt, T. H. & Myers, C. R. (2010). Continuing Education Needs of Nurses in a Voluntary Continuing Nursing Education State. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing. 41(3):107-114.

Nursing Council of Kenya (2008). Guidelines on Continuing Professional Development.

Nairobi: Nursing Council of Kenya.

Nolan, M., R. Owen, M. Curran & Venables, A. (2000). Re-conceptualising the Outcomes of

Continuing Professional Development. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 37 (5)

Onyango, D. A. (2012). Nurses' Perceptions of Continuing Professional Development in a Public Health Care Facility in Kisumu, Kenya. University of South Africa.

Penz, K., Arcy, C., Stewart, N., Kosteniuk, J., Morgan, D. & Smith, B. (2007). Barriers to Participation in Continuing Education Activities Among Rural and Remote Nurses. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 38(2):58-64.

Poell, R. F. (1998). Organizing work-related Learning Projects: A Network Approach. Ph.D. diss. Catholic University Nijmegen.

Riggs, C. J. (2010). Taming the Pedagogy dragon. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 41(9):388-389.

Schweitzer, D. J & Krassa, T. J. (2010). Deterrents to Nurses’ Participation in Continuing

Professional Development: An Integrative Literature Review. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 41(10):441-447.

Shen, N. (1998). Clarification of Basic Concept and Standardization of Continuing Nursing Education. Chinese Journal of Nursing. 33 (11): 651-652.

Smith, J., & Topping, A. (2001). Unpacking the “Value Added” Impact of Continuing

Professional Education: A Multi-Method Case Study Approach. Nurse Education Today. (21): 341-349.

Speet, M. and Francke, A.L. (2004), Individuele professionalisering van verpleegkundigen in de

beroepsopleiding en in de praktijk (Individual professional development of nurses in

Vocational training and practice), NIVEL, Utrecht.

WHO, (2010). Scaling up Education and Training of Human Resources for Health in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Wood, J. (2006). Exploring Staff Nurses' Views on Professional Development. Journal

of Nursing. Vol.102, Issue 13, Pg.36.

Yoder, W. (2007). Continuing Our Education For What? Journal of Continuing

Education In Nursing, Vol. 38, No. 2, P. 51.

Younies, H., Berham, B & Smith, P. C. (2010). Perceptions of Continuing Medical

Education, Professional Development and Organizational Support in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 30 (4):255.

Zhang, L. (2009). Influencing and Counter Measures of Nurses’ Working Settings on Continuing Nursing Education. Modern Medicine Health. 25 (3): 461–463


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Kenyan Journal of Nursing & Midwifery

© Numid Publishers        ISSN:  2518-8631