Sally Otenyo, Alice Kemunto Maranga-Ondieki, Catherine Syombua Mwenda


Introduction: Hypertension is more prevalent in people with mental illness than in the general population, the reason being because of disease, lifestyle and treatment factors. This practice development aimed at providing evidence based information on the management of hypertension in mentally ill patients.

Methods: This was a literature review. MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were sought. Articles published between the years 2000 to 2014 were considered relevant.

Findings: The results showed an increased prevalence of hypertension in patients with mental illness. This prevalence has clinical implications for care that is routine screening, prevention and proper management of hypertension.

Conclusion and Recommendations: Healthcare workers in psychiatric units and hypertension clinic need to be doing routine monitoring of the physical health of people with mental illness, have good communication and collaboration in order to integrate care that is needed by the mentally ill patients.


Hypertension, Mental illiness

Full Text:



Chobanian, A. Bakris, G. L., Black, H. R., Cushman, W. C., Green, L. A., Izzo, J. L., Jr., . . . National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating, C. (2003). Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension, 42(6): 1206-52.

COHN, T. and SERNYAK, M. (2006). Metabolic monitoring for patients treated with antipsychotic medications. Can J Psychiatry, 51: 492-501.

DE HERT, M., Cohen, D., Bobes, J., Cetkovich-Bakmas, M., Leucht, S., Ndetei, D. M., . . . Correll, C. U. (2011). Physical illness in patients with severe mental disorders. Barriers to care, monitoring, and treatment guidelines, plus recommendations at the system and individual level. World Psychiatry, 10(2): 138-151.

DRUSS, B., Rosenheck, R. A., Desai, M. M., & Perlin, J. B. (2002). Quality of preventive medical care for patients with mental disorders. Medical care, 40(2), 129-136.

Fahey, T., Schroeder, K., and Ebrahim, S. (2006). Interventions used to improve control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Cochrane Database syst. Rev., CD005182.

KELBRICK, M., Abdaldayim, S., & Picchioni, M. (2014). Blood Pressure monitoring in psychiatric in patients with bipolar affective disorder. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry, pp. 11-15.

KESSLER, R., Angermeyer, M., Anthony, J. C., R, D. E. G., Demyttenaere, K., Gasquet, I., Ustun, T. B. (2007). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry, 6:168-79.

KORTE, S., Koolhaas, J. M., Wingfield, J. C., & McEwen, B. S. (2005). The Darwinian concept of stress: Benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 29:3-38.

KRETCHY, I., Owusu-Daaku, F. T., & Danquah, S. A. (2014). Mental health in hypertension: Assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress on anti-hypertensive medication adherence. International Journal of mental health systems, 8:25.

LAMBERT, T. J., Velakoulis D, Pantelis C. (2003). Medical co-morbidity in schizophrenia. Med J Aust., 178:67-70.

LIAO, C. H., Chang C. S., Wei W. C., Chang SN, Liao C. C., Lane HY, & Sung F.C (2011). Schizophrenia patients at a higher risk of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia: A population based study. Schizophrenia Research, 126: 110-116.

NASHRALLAH, H., Meyer JM, Goff DC, McEvoy JP, Davis SM, Stroup TS, Lieberman JA (2006). Low rates of treatment for hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes in schizophrenia: Data from CATIE schizophrenia trial sample at baseline. Schizophrenia Research, 86:15-22.

NG, H. et al., (2010). Hypertension. Medicine, 38(8):403-8.

RECTOR, N., and BECK, A. (2011).Cognitive behavioral Therapy for schizophrenia: An Empirical Review. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189(5): 278-287.

OUD, T., Beelen, A., Eijffinger, E., & Nollet, F. (2007). Sensory re-education after nerve injury of the upper limb: A systematic review. Clinical rehabilitation.21: 483-494.

ROBERTS, L., Roalfe, A., Wilson, S., & Lester, H. (2006). Physical health care of patients with schizophrenia in primary care: A comparative study. Family Practice, 24: 34-40.

SCHAFFER, A., Roalfe, A., Wilson, S., & Lester, H. (2012). The CANMAT Task Force recommendations for the management of patients with mood disorders and co-morbid anxiety disorders. AM Clin. Psychiatry, 24: 6-22.

THOMPSON, M. L. (2007). Mental illness.Westport, CT: Green wood Press.

STEIN, D., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Bruffaerts, R., De Jonge, P., Liu, Z., ... & Angermeyer, M. C. (2014). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension. General hospital Psychiatry, 36:142-149.

WILLIAMS, B., Poulter, N. R., Brown, M. J., Davis, M., McInnes, G. T., Potter, J. F., ... & Thom, S. M. (2004). British hypertension society guidelines for hypertension management. BMJ, 328(7440): 634-40.

WU, E., Chien, I. C., Lin, C. H., Chou, Y. J., & Chou, P. (2012). Increased risk of hypertension in patients with major depressive disorder: A population-based study. Journal of Psychosomatic research, 73:169-174.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Kenyan Journal of Nursing & Midwifery

© Numid Publishers        ISSN:  2518-8631